1. Women tend to have smaller, thinner bones than men.
2. Asian women have lower bone mass than Caucasian women. Africans and African Americans tend to have a better bone mineral density creating less incidence of fracture
3. Osteoporosis tends to run in families. If a member of the family has osteoporosis or breaks a bone, there’s a greater chance that you’ll too.
4. Personal history of fracture as an adult after the age of fifty
5. Research have proven a direct relationship between tobacco use and decreased bone density.
6. Drinking to much lot alcohol.
7. Lack of exercise.
8. Diet low in calcium and magnesium.
9. Poor nutrition and poor general health.
10. Malabsorption (nutrients aren’t properly absorbed from the gastrointestinal system)
11. Low oestrogen levels in women (which may arise in menopause or with early surgical removal of both ovaries)
12. Low testosterone levels in men.
13. Chemotherapy that can cause early menopause due to its toxic effects on the ovaries.
14. Chronic inflammation, due to chronic inflammatory arthritis.
15. Immobility, such as after a stroke, or from any condition that interferes with walking.
16. Hyperthyroidism, a condition wherein too much thyroid hormone is produced by the thyroid gland.
17. Hyperparathyroidism is a disease wherein there is excessive parathyroid hormone production by the parathyroid gland, a small gland located near or within the thyroid gland. usually, parathyroid hormone maintains blood calcium levels by, in part, eliminating calcium from the bone. In untreated hyperparathyroidism, excessive parathyroid hormone causes too much calcium to be removed from the bone, that can result in osteoporosis.
18. When vitamin D is lacking, the body can not take in adequate amounts of calcium from the diet to prevent osteoporosis.
19. Certain medications can cause osteoporosis. these medicines include long-term use of heparin, antiseizure medicine such as phenytoin and phenobarbital, and long-term use of oral corticosteroids.
20. Inherited issues of connective tissue, inclusive of osteogenesis imperfecta, homocystinuria, osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome and skin diseases, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.